Advantages and disadvantages of globalization

Your shirt was made1 in Mexico and your shoes2 in China. Your CD player comes from Japan. You can travel to Moscow and eat a Big Mac there and you can watch3 an American film in Rome. Today goodsare made and sold all over the world5, thanks to6 globalization.

Globalization lets countries move closer to each other7. People, companies8 and organizations in different countries can live and work together. We can exchange9 goods , money and ideas faster and cheaper than ever before10. Modern communication and technology, like11 the Internet, cell phones12 or satellite TV help us in our daily lives13.

Globalization is growing quickly14. A German company can produce cars in Argentina and then sell them in the United States. A businessman15 in Great Britain can buy a part of a company in Indonesia on one day and sell parts of another business16 in China the next, thanks to globalization. Fast food companies open shops around the world almost17 every day.

However18 , there is a growing debate over globalization. Governments are in favour of19 globalization because the economy can grow. Other people are not so sure that there are only advantages20. Here are some arguments from both sides21:

·         Globalization lets countries do what they can do best. If, for example, you buy cheap steel22 from another country you don’t have to make your own23 steel. You can focus on24 computers or other things.
·         Globalization gives you a larger market. You can sell more goods and make more money. You can create more jobs25.
·         Consumers also profit from26 globalization. Products become27 cheaper and you can get28 new goods more quickly.

·         Globalization causes unemployment30 in industrialized countries because firms move their factories to places where they can get cheaper workers.
·         Globalization may lead to31 more environmental problems32. A company may want to build factories in other countries because environmental laws are not as strict as33 they are at home. Poor countries in the Third World may have to cut down34 more trees so that35 they can sell wood36 to richer countries.
·         Globalization can lead to financial problems . In the 1970s and 80s countries like Mexico, Thailand, Indonesia or Brazil got a lot of money37 from investors who hoped38 they could build new businesses there. These new companies often39 didn’t work, so they had to close down and investors pulled out40 their money.
·         Some of the poorest countries in the world41, especially in Africa, may get even poorer42. Their population is not as educated as in developed countries43 and they don’t have the new technology that we do.
·         Human, animal and plant diseases44 can spread45 more quickly through46 globalization.

1.      was made = foi feito
2.      shoes = sapatos
3.      watch = assistir
4.      goods  = bens, mercadorias
5.      sold all over the world = por todo o mundo
6.      thanks to = graças a
7.      lets countries move closer to each other = permite os países aproximarem-se uns dos outros
8.      companies = empresas
9.      Exchange = permutar, trocar
10.  faster and cheaper than ever before = mais rápido e mais barato do que nunca antes
11.  like = como
12.  cell phones  = telefones celulares
13.  daily lives = vidas diárias
14.  growing quickly = crescendo rapidamente
15.  businessman = executivo
16.  business  = negócios, empresas
17.  almost = quase
18.  However  = contudo
19.  in favour of = a favor de (Inglês americano = in favor of)
20.  are not so sure that there are only advantages = não tem certeza de que há apenas vantagens
21.  from both sides = de ambos os lados
22.  steel = aço
23.  own = próprio
24.  focus on = focar em, concentrar em
25.  Jobs = empregos
26.  profit from = lucrar com
27.  become = tornam-se
28.  get = obter
29.  Disadvantages = desvantagem
30.  Unemployment = desemprego
31.  may lead to = pode conduzir a
32.  environmental problems = problemas ambientais
33.  as strict as = tão rígidas quanto
34.  cut down = cortar, derrubar
35.  so that = para que
36.  wood = Madeira
37.  got a lot of money = receberam muito dinheiro
38.  hoped = tinham esperança
39.  often = frequentemente
40.  pulled out  = retiraram
41.  Some of the poorest countries in the world = Alguns dos países mais pobres do mundo
42.  may get even poorer = podem ficar ainda mais pobres
43.  developed countries = países desenvolvidos
44.  diseases  = doenças
45.  spread  = espalharem-se
46.  through = através